Data Collection


  • A candidate is requested to seek the permission from the relevant bodies of each country that approves the conduct and the ethical considerations of the research before the candidate is allowed to embark onto the proper data gathering procedures.
  • The letters of consent from the relevant authorities must be disclosed to the supervisor(s) and attached in the thesis as appendix.

Informed Consent

  • Perhaps the most basic and important ethical issues in research are concerned with participants. right to informed consent and freedom from harm.
  • Researchers obtain informed consent by ensuring that research participants enter the research of their free will and with the understanding of the nature of the study and any possible dangers that may occur.
  • This requirement is intended to reduce the likelihood that participants will be exploited by a researcher persuading them to participate when they are not fully aware of what the study.s requirements are.
  • Researchers must ensure freedom from harm by not exposing participants to undue risks.
  • This requirement includes issues of confidentiality (protecting participants from ridicule or embarrassment) and issues related to personal privacy.
  • Collecting information on participants or observing them without their knowledge or without appropriate permission is considered unethical.
  • Furthermore, any data or information that are gathered, either from or about a person, should be strictly confidential.
  • Access to data should also be limited to persons directly involved in conducting the research.

Data Authenticity

  • The researcher must declare that the thesis is his/her own work and that all contributions from any other persons or sources are properly and duly cited.
  • The researcher further declares that it does not constitute any previous work whether published or otherwise.
  • Candidate and supervisor(s) have the obligation to ensure the authenticity of data.
  • Data must normally be kept in a safe place with a proper security and for at least two years.
  • Original data must be made available if requested to show evidence of authenticity.